ENR 1.2  Visual flight rules

1.   VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima

1.1  VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima are contained in Table 1.
Table 1:
Altitude bandAirspace
class
Flight
visibility
Distance from cloud
At and above 3050 M (10 000 FT) AMSLC D G8 KM1500 M horizontally
300 M (1000 FT) vertically
Below 3050 M (10 000 FT) AMSL and above 900 M
(3000 FT) AMSL, or above 300 M (1000 FT) above
terrain, whichever is the higher
C D G5 KM1500 M horizontally
300 M (1000 FT) vertically
At or below 900 M (3000 FT) AMSL, or 300 M
(1000 FT) above terrain, whichever is the higher
C D5 KM1500 M horizontally
300 M (1000 FT) vertically
G5 KM(*)Clear of cloud and with the
surface in sight

(*) As prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority:

  1. flight visibilities reduced to not less than 1 500 M may be permitted for flights operating:
    1. at speeds that, in the prevailing visibility, will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision; or
    2. in circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic would normally be low, e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels.
  2. HELICOPTERS may be permitted to operate in less than 1 500 M flight visibility, if manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision.

2.   Visual flight rules

2.1  VFR flights shall be conducted so that the aircraft is flown in conditions of visibility and distance from clouds equal to or greater than those specified in Table 1.
2.2  VFR flights shall not take-off or land at an aerodrome within a control zone, or enter the aerodrome traffic zone or aerodrome traffic circuit when the reported meteorological conditions at the aerodrome are below the following minima:
  1. the ceiling is less than 450 M (1 500 FT); or
  2. the ground visibility is less than 5 KM.
2.3  VFR flights shall not be operated within the Tirana FIR at night. In exceptional circumstances, as authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, permission for VFR flights at night may be granted to State aircraft, emergency medical flights and aircraft engaged in search and rescue operations and fire-fighting, provided:
  1. aircraft operators shall submit a flight plan;
  2. aircraft shall be equipped with an operational Mode C and A transponder and continuously squawk an ATC issued transponder code;
  3. aircraft operating outside controlled airspace shall establish and maintain two-way radio communication on the appropriate ATS communication channel, when available, and report its position as necessary;
  4. ceiling, visibility and distance from cloud minima equal to or greater than those specified in Table 1. It may be permitted below such minima for helicopters in special cases, such as State flights, medical flights, search and rescue operations and fire fighting under pilot responsibility.

Note: ‘Night’ means the hours between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight. Civil twilight ends in the evening when the centre of the sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the horizon and begins in the morning when the centre of the sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the horizon.

2.4  Unless authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights shall not be operated:
  1. above FL 195;
  2. at transonic and supersonic speeds.
2.5  Authorization for VFR flights to operate above FL 290 shall not be granted in areas within the Tirana FIR where a vertical separation minimum of 300 M (1000 FT) is applied above FL 290, as described in ENR 2.1.
2.6  Except when necessary for take-off or landing, or except by permission from the appropriate ATS authority, a VFR flight shall not be flown:
  1. over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open-air assembly of persons at a height less than 300 M (1 000 FT) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 M from the aircraft;
  2. elsewhere than as specified in 2.6 a), at a height less than 150 M (500 FT) above the ground or water.
2.7  Except where otherwise indicated in air traffic control clearances or specified by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights in level cruising flight when operated above 900 M (3000 FT) from the ground or water, or a higher datum as specified by the appropriate ATS authority, shall be conducted at a cruising level appropriate to the track as specified in the table of cruising levels for VFR flights at ENR 1.7.5.
2.8  VFR flights when operated within Classes C and D airspace shall be conducted at a flight level appropriate to the track as specified in the table of cruising levels for IFR flights at ENR 1.7.5.
2.9  VFR flights shall comply with the provisions of ICAO Annex 2, 3.6:
  1. when operated within Classes C and D airspace; or
  2. when forming part of aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes.
2.10  A VFR flight operating within or into areas, or along routes, designated by the appropriate ATS authority in accordance with ICAO Annex 2, 3.3.1.2 c) or d) shall maintain continuous air-ground voice communication watch on the appropriate communication channel of, and report its position as necessary to, the air traffic services unit providing flight information service.
2.11  An aircraft operated in accordance with the visual flight rules which wishes to change to compliance with the instrument flight rules shall:
  1. if a flight plan was submitted, communicate the necessary changes to be effected to its current flight plan, or
  2. when so required by ICAO Annex 2, 3.3.1.2, submit a flight plan to the appropriate air traffic services unit and obtain a clearance prior to proceeding IFR when in controlled airspace.
2.12  When it becomes evident that flight in VMC in accordance with its current flight plan will not be practicable, a VFR flight operated as a controlled flight shall:
  1. request an amended clearance enabling the aircraft to continue in VMC to destination or to an alternative aerodrome, or to leave the airspace within which an ATC clearance is required; or
  2. if no clearance in accordance with 2.12 a) can be obtained, continue to operate in VMC and notify the appropriate ATC unit of the action being taken either to leave the airspace concerned or to land at the nearest suitable aerodrome; or
  3. request clearance to operate in accordance with the instrument flight rules.

3.   Special VFR in control zones

3.1  Special VFR flights shall not be authorized to operate within a control zone.