ENR 1.6  ATS surveillance services and procedures

1.   Provision of ATS surveillance services

1.1   ATS surveillance systems used in the provision of air traffic services
1.1.1  Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) systems shall be used in the provision of air traffic services, including in the provision of separation between aircraft, provided:
  1. the carriage of SSR transponders is mandatory to all aircraft operating within the area notified at GEN 1.5.3, paragraph 3.4.1; and
  2. identification is established and maintained.
1.1.2  The provision of ATS surveillance services shall be limited to specified areas of coverage and shall be subject to such other limitations as have been specified by the appropriate ATS authority.
1.1.3  The ATS surveillance services are based on the data received from the following SSR systems:
SSR NameLatitudeLongitudeRange

Porto Romano MSSR

41 21 54N

019 25 22E

227 NM

Rinas MSSR

41 25 06N

019 42 45E

200 NM

Kerkira MSSR

39 32 59N

019 52 51E

200 NM

Skopje MSSR

41 57 30N

021 38 31E

200 NM

1.2   Types of ATS surveillance service
1.2.1  Tirana ACC shall normally provide air traffic control services with the use of ATS surveillance system to all aircraft operating in controlled airspace within the Tirana FIR at and above FL 115, except Tirana APP area of responsibility.
1.2.2  Tirana ACC shall provide flight information and alerting service with the use of ATS surveillance system to all aircraft operating within the Tirana FIR at and above FL 115, except Tirana APP area of responsibility.
1.2.3  Tirana APP shall normally provide air traffic control services with the use of ATS surveillance system to all aircraft operating within the Tirana APP area of responsibility, and for other such airspace delegated to Tirana APP by the Tirana ACC.
1.2.4  Tirana APP shall provide flight information and alerting service with the use of ATS surveillance system to all aircraft operating within the Tirana APP area of responsibility, and outside controlled airspace within the Tirana FIR below FL 115, if requested (see GEN 3.3).
1.3   Identification of aircraft
1.3.1  Before providing an ATS surveillance service to an aircraft, identification shall be established and the pilot informed. Thereafter, identification shall be maintained until termination of the ATS surveillance service.
1.3.2  If identification is subsequently lost, the pilot shall be informed accordingly and, when applicable, appropriate instructions issued.
1.3.2.1  Aircraft may be identified by one or more of the following procedures:
  1. recognition of the aircraft identification in an SSR label;

    Note: The use of this procedure requires that the code/call sign correlation is achieved successfully, taking into account the Note following b) below.
  2. recognition of an assigned discrete code, the setting of which has been verified, in an SSR label; and

    Note: The use of this procedure requires a system of code assignment which ensures that each aircraft in a given portion of airspace is assigned a discrete code.
  3. by transfer of identification;
  4. observation of compliance with an instruction to set a specific code;
  5. observation of compliance with an instruction to squawk IDENT.
1.3.2.2  When a discrete code has been assigned to an aircraft, a check shall be made at the earliest opportunity to ensure that the code set by the pilot is identical to that assigned for the flight. Only after this check has been made shall the discrete code be used as a basis for identification.
1.4   Vectoring
1.4.1  Vectoring shall be achieved by issuing to the pilot specific headings which will enable the aircraft to maintain the desired track. When vectoring an aircraft, a controller shall comply with the following:
  1. whenever practicable, the aircraft shall be vectored along tracks on which the pilot can monitor the aircraft position with reference to pilot-interpreted navigation aids (this will minimize the amount of navigational assistance required and alleviate the consequences resulting from an ATS surveillance system failure);
  2. when an aircraft is given its initial vector diverting it from a previously assigned route, the pilot shall be informed what the vector is to accomplish, and the limit of the vector shall be specified (e.g. to ... position, for ... approach);
  3. except when transfer of control is to be effected, aircraft shall not be vectored closer than 2.5 NM or, where the minimum permissible separation is greater than 5 NM, a distance equivalent to one-half of the prescribed separation minimum, from the limit of the airspace for which the controller is responsible, unless local arrangements have been made to ensure that separation will exist with aircraft operating in adjoining areas;
  4. controlled flights shall not be vectored into uncontrolled airspace except in the case of emergency or in order to circumnavigate adverse meteorological conditions (in which case the pilot should be so informed), or at the specific request of the pilot; and
  5. when an aircraft has reported unreliable directional instruments, the pilot shall be requested, prior to the issuance of manoeuvring instructions, to make all turns at an agreed rate and to carry out the instructions immediately upon receipt.
1.4.2  When vectoring an IFR flight and when giving an IFR flight a direct routing which takes the aircraft off an ATS route, the controller shall issue clearances such that the prescribed obstacle clearance will exist at all times until the aircraft reaches the point where the pilot will resume own navigation. When necessary, the relevant minimum vectoring altitude shall include a correction for low temperature effect.

Note: When an IFR flight is being vectored, the pilot may be unable to determine the aircraft’s exact position in respect to obstacles in this area and consequently the altitude which provides the required obstacle clearance. Detailed obstacle clearance criteria are contained in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volumes I and II.

1.4.3  Whenever possible, minimum vectoring altitudes should be sufficiently high to minimize activation of aircraft ground proximity warning systems.

Note: Activation of such systems will induce aircraft to pull up immediately and climb steeply to avoid hazardous terrain, possibly compromising separation between aircraft.

1.4.4  Operators are encouraged to report incidents involving activations of aircraft ground proximity warning systems so that their locations can be identified and altitude, routing and/or aircraft operating procedures can be altered to prevent recurrences.
1.4.5  In terminating vectoring of an aircraft, the controller shall instruct the pilot to resume own navigation, giving the pilot the aircraft’s position and appropriate instructions, as necessary, if the current instructions had diverted the aircraft from a previously assigned route.
1.4.6  Aircraft vectored for final approach should be given a heading or a series of headings calculated to close with the final approach track. The final vector shall enable the aircraft to be established in level flight on the final approach track prior to intercepting the specified or nominal glide path if an ILS approach is to be made, and should provide an intercept angle with the final approach track of 45 degrees or less.
1.4.7  Whenever an aircraft is assigned a vector which will take it through the final approach track, it should be advised accordingly, stating the reason for the vector.
1.5   Vectoring to pilot-interpreted final approach aid
1.5.1  An aircraft vectored to intercept a pilot-interpreted final approach aid shall be instructed to report when established on the final approach track. Clearance for the approach should be issued prior to when the aircraft reports established, unless circumstances preclude the issuance of the clearance at such time. Vectoring will normally terminate at the time the aircraft leaves the last assigned heading to intercept the final approach track.
1.5.2  The controller shall be responsible for maintaining separation specified in 1.9.3 between succeeding aircraft on the same final approach, except that the responsibility may be transferred to the aerodrome controller in accordance with procedures prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority and provided an ATS surveillance system is available to the aerodrome controller.
1.5.3  Transfer of control of succeeding aircraft on final approach to the aerodrome controller shall be effected in accordance with procedures prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
1.5.4  Transfer of communications to the aerodrome controller should be effected at such a point or time that clearance to land or alternative instructions can be issued to the aircraft in a timely manner.
1.6   Navigation assistance
1.6.1  An identified aircraft observed to deviate significantly from its intended route or designated holding pattern shall be advised accordingly. Appropriate action shall also be taken if, in the opinion of the controller, such deviation is likely to affect the service being provided.
1.6.2  The pilot of an aircraft requesting navigation assistance from an air traffic control unit providing ATS surveillance services shall state the reason (e.g. to avoid areas of adverse weather or unreliable navigational instruments) and shall give as much information as possible in the circumstances.
1.7   Interruption or termination of ATS surveillance service
1.7.1  An aircraft which has been informed that it is provided with ATS surveillance service should be informed immediately when, for any reason, the service is interrupted or terminated.

Note: The transition of an aircraft across adjoining areas of radar systems coverage will not normally constitute an interruption or termination of the ATS surveillance service.

1.7.2  When the control of an identified aircraft is to be transferred to a control sector that will provide the aircraft with procedural separation, the transferring controller shall ensure that appropriate procedural separation is established between that aircraft and any other controlled aircraft before the transfer is effected.
1.8   Minimum levels
1.8.1  The controller shall at all times be in possession of full and up-to-date information regarding:
  1. established minimum flight altitudes within the area of responsibility;
  2. the lowest usable flight level or levels; and
  3. established minimum altitudes applicable to procedures based on tactical vectoring.
1.8.2  Unless otherwise specified by the appropriate ATS authority, minimum altitudes for procedures based on tactical vectoring with any ATS surveillance system shall be determined using the criteria applicable to tactical radar vectoring.

Note: Criteria for the determination of minimum altitudes applicable to procedures based on tactical radar vectoring are contained in Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Aircraft Operations (PANS-OPS, Doc 8168), Volume II.

1.8.3  ATC shall not at any time clear or vector aircraft below the published minimum en-route levels for aircraft outside the Tirana TMA, or below the levels specified on the ATC Surveillance Minimum Altitude Chart for aircraft within the Tirana TMA.
1.9   Use of ATS surveillance systems in the air traffic control
1.9.1   Functions
1.9.1.1  The information provided by ATS surveillance systems and presented on a situation display may be used to perform the following functions in the provision of air traffic control service:
  1. provide ATS surveillance services as necessary in order to improve airspace utilization, reduce delays, provide for direct routings and more optimum flight profiles, as well as to enhance safety;
  2. provide vectoring to departing aircraft for the purpose of facilitating an expeditious and efficient departure flow and expediting climb to cruising level;
  3. provide vectoring to aircraft for the purpose of resolving potential conflicts;
  4. provide vectoring to arriving aircraft for the purpose of establishing an expeditious and efficient approach sequence;
  5. provide vectoring to assist pilots in their navigation, e.g. to or from a radio navigation aid, away from or around areas of adverse weather;
  6. provide separation and maintain normal traffic flow when an aircraft experiences communication failure within the area of coverage;
  7. maintain flight path monitoring of air traffic.

Note: Where tolerances regarding such matters as adherence to track, speed or time have been prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, deviations are not considered significant until such tolerances are exceeded.

1.9.2   Separation application
1.9.2.1  Except as provided for in 1.9.2.5 and 1.9.2.6, the separation minima specified in 1.9.3.1 shall only be applied between identified aircraft when there is reasonable assurance that identification will be maintained.
1.9.2.2  When control of an identified aircraft is to be transferred to a control sector that will provide the aircraft with procedural separation, such separation shall be established by the transferring controller before the aircraft reaches the limits of the transferring controller’s area of responsibility, or before the aircraft leaves the relevant area of surveillance coverage.
1.9.2.3  Separation based on the use of SSR responses shall be applied so that the distance between the closest edges of the SSR responses is never less than a prescribed minimum.
1.9.2.4  In no circumstances shall the edges of the position indications touch or overlap unless vertical separation is applied between the aircraft concerned, irrespective of the type of position indication displayed and separation minimum applied.
1.9.2.5  In the event that the controller has been notified of a controlled flight entering or about to enter the airspace within which the separation minima specified in 1.9.3.1 is applied, but has not identified the aircraft, the controller may, if so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, continue to provide an ATS surveillance service to identified aircraft provided that:
  1. reasonable assurance exists that the unidentified controlled flight will be identified using SSR or the flight is being operated by an aircraft of a type which may be expected to give an adequate return on primary radar in the airspace within which the separation is applied; and
  2. the separation is maintained between identified flights and any other observed ATS surveillance system position indications until either the unidentified controlled flight has been identified or procedural separation has been established.
1.9.2.6  The separation minima specified in 1.9.3.1 may be applied between an aircraft taking off and a preceding departing aircraft or other identified traffic provided there is reasonable assurance that the departing aircraft will be identified within 1 NM from the end of the runway, and that, at the time, the required separation will exist.
1.9.2.7  The separation minima specified in 1.9.3.1 shall not be applied between aircraft holding over the same holding fix. Application of ATS surveillance system separation minima based on ATS surveillance systems between holding aircraft and other flights shall be subject to requirements and procedures prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
1.9.3   Separation minima based on ATS surveillance systems
1.9.3.1  The horizontal separation minima based on ATS surveillance systems shall be 7.0 NM. Within the Tirana TMA this may be reduced to 5.0 NM.
1.9.4   Speed control
1.9.4.1  Subject to conditions specified by the appropriate ATS authority, including consideration of aircraft performance limitations, a controller may, in order to facilitate sequencing or to reduce the need for vectoring, request aircraft to adjust their speed in a specified manner.
1.10   Use of ATS surveillance systems in the flight information service

Note: The use of an ATS surveillance system in the provision of flight information service does not relieve the pilot-in-command of an aircraft of any responsibilities, including the final decision regarding any suggested alteration of the flight plan.

1.10.1   Functions
1.10.1.1  The information presented on a situation display may be used to provide identified aircraft with:
  1. information regarding any aircraft observed to be on a conflicting path with the identified aircraft and suggestions or advice regarding avoiding action;
  2. information on the position of significant weather and, as practicable, advice to the aircraft on how best to circumnavigate any such areas of adverse weather;
  3. information to assist the aircraft in its navigation.

2.   Use of SSR transponders

2.1   General procedures
2.1.1  To ensure the safe and efficient use of ATS surveillance services, pilots and controllers shall strictly adhere to published operating procedures and standard radiotelephony phraseology shall be used. The correct setting of transponder codes and/or aircraft identification shall be ensured at all times.
2.1.2  Codes shall be assigned to aircraft in accordance with the plan and procedures laid down by the appropriate ATS authority.
2.1.3  Where there is a need for individual aircraft identification, each aircraft shall be assigned a discrete code which should, whenever possible, be retained throughout the flight.
2.1.4  Except for aircraft in a state of emergency, or during communication failure or unlawful interference situations, and unless otherwise agreed by regional air navigation agreement or between a transferring and an accepting ATC unit, the transferring unit shall assign Code A2000 to a controlled flight prior to transfer of communications.
2.2   Transit and local codes allocated to Albania
2.2.1  According to SSR Code Allocation List for the EUR Region, local codes in the series 00 are allocated to Tirana FIR for use by designated ATC units for local purposes. Transit codes are allocated to Tirana ACC for assignment to an aircraft engaged in transit flights within the Participating Area (PA) EUR-D. Aircraft will retain the assigned code within the geographical limits of the PA or, in the case of the agreement between States concerned, across PA boundaries.
2.2.2  SSR codes shall be used for ATS purposes only.
Tirana FIRSeriesCodesRemarks

Transit

13


43
1360 – 1377


4340 - 4347
Allocated to aircraft departing from any aerodrome within the Tirana FIR with destination to other countries

Allocated by Tirana ACC to aircraft departing from LGKR and LGPZ

Local

00

0060 - 0077

Allocated for use by aircraft remaining within the
boundary of the Tirana FIR

Local

67

6770 - 6777

Temporary allocated to NATO for use by helicopters operating not above 3000 FT AGL

2.3   Operation of SSR transponders

Note: SSR transponder operating procedures are contained in Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Aircraft Operations (PANS-OPS, Doc 8168), Volume III, Chapter 1, Section 4.

2.3.1  When an aircraft carries a serviceable transponder, the pilot shall operate the transponder at all times during flight, regardless of whether the aircraft is within or outside airspace where secondary surveillance radar (SSR) is used for ATS purposes.
2.3.2  Pilots shall not operate the IDENT feature unless requested by ATS.
2.3.3  To indicate that it is in a specific contingency situation, the pilot of an aircraft equipped with SSR shall:
  1. select Code 7700 to indicate a state of emergency unless ATC has previously directed the pilot to operate the transponder on a specified code. In the latter case, a pilot may nevertheless select Code 7700 whenever there is a specific reason to believe that this would be the best course of action;
  2. select Code 7600 to indicate a state of radio-communication failure;
  3. attempt to select Code 7500 to indicate a state of unlawful interference. If circumstances so warrant, Code 7700 should be used instead.
2.3.4  If a pilot has selected Mode A Code 7500 and has been requested to confirm this code by ATC, the pilot should, according to circumstances, either confirm this or not reply at all. If the pilot does not reply, ATC should take this as confirmation that the use of Code 7500 is not an inadvertent false code selection.
2.3.5  Except in the cases described in 2.3.3 above, the pilot shall:
  1. select codes as instructed by the ATS unit; or
  2. in the absence of ATS instructions related to code setting, select Code 2000 or another code as prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority; or
  3. when not receiving air traffic services, select Code 7000 in order to improve the detection of suitably equipped aircraft unless otherwise prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.
2.3.6  When it is observed that the code shown on the situation display is different from what has been assigned to the aircraft:
  1. the pilot shall be requested to confirm the code selected and, if the situation warrants, to reselect the correct code; and
  2. if the discrepancy between assigned and displayed codes still persists, the pilot may be requested to stop the operation of the aircraft's transponder. The next control position and any other affected unit using SSR in the provision of ATS shall be informed accordingly.
2.3.7  When requested by ATC to confirm the code selected, the pilot shall:
  1. verify the Mode A code setting on the transponder;
  2. reselect the assigned code if necessary; and
  3. confirm to ATC the setting displayed on the controls of the transponder.
2.3.8  When the aircraft carries serviceable Mode C equipment, the pilot shall continuously operate this mode, unless otherwise directed by ATC.
2.3.9  Unless otherwise prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, verification of the pressure-altitude-derived level information displayed to the controller shall be effected at least once by each suitably equipped ATC unit on initial contact with the aircraft concerned or, if this is not feasible, as soon as possible thereafter.
2.3.10  If the displayed level information is not within the approved tolerance value or when a discrepancy in excess of the approved tolerance value is detected subsequent to verification, the pilot should be advised accordingly and requested to check the pressure setting and confirm the aircraft’s level.
2.3.11  If, following confirmation of the correct pressure setting, the discrepancy continues to exist, the following action should be taken by ATC according to circumstances:
  1. request the pilot to select and operate an alternative transponder, if available, and re-verify that the displayed level information is within the approved tolerance; or
  2. request the pilot to stop Mode C altitude data transmission, provided this does not cause the loss of position and identity information, and notify the next control positions or ATC unit concerned with the aircraft of the action taken; or
  3. inform the pilot of the discrepancy and request that the relevant operation continue in order to prevent loss of position and identity information of the aircraft and, when so prescribed by the local instructions, override the label-displayed level information with the reported level. In addition, the ATC unit should notify the next control position or ATC unit concerned with the aircraft of the action taken.

3.   Emergency, equipment failure and unlawful interference procedures

3.1   General
3.1.1  In case of an aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency, including being subjected to unlawful interference, ATS units shall give the aircraft maximum consideration, assistance and priority over other aircraft, as may be necessitated by the circumstances.
3.1.2  Subsequent ATC actions shall be based on the intentions of the pilot, the overall air traffic situation and the real-time dynamics of the contingency.
3.2   Emergency
3.2.1  In the event of an aircraft in, or appearing to be in, any form of emergency, every assistance shall be provided by the controller, and the procedures prescribed herein may be varied according to the situation.
3.2.2  The progress of an aircraft in emergency shall be monitored and (whenever possible) plotted on the situation display until the aircraft passes out of coverage of the ATS surveillance system, and position information shall be provided to all air traffic services units which may be able to give assistance to the aircraft. Transfer to adjacent sectors shall also be effected when appropriate.

Note: If the pilot of an aircraft encountering a state of emergency has previously been directed by ATC to select a specific transponder code, that code will normally be maintained unless, in special circumstances, the pilot has decided or has been advised otherwise. Where ATC has not requested a code or emergency mode to be set, the pilot will set the transponder to Mode A Code 7700.

3.2.3  When an emergency is declared by an aircraft, the ATS unit should take appropriate and relevant action as follows:
  1. unless clearly stated by the flight crew or otherwise known, take all necessary steps to ascertain aircraft identification and type, the type of emergency, the intentions of the flight crew as well as the position and level of the aircraft;
  2. decide upon the most appropriate type of assistance which can be rendered;
  3. enlist the aid of any other ATS unit or other services which may be able to provide assistance to the aircraft;
  4. provide the flight crew with any information requested as well as any additional relevant information, such as details on suitable aerodromes, minimum safe altitudes, weather information;
  5. obtain from the operator or the flight crew such of the following information as may be relevant: number of persons on board, amount of fuel remaining, possible presence of hazardous materials and the nature thereof; and
  6. notify the appropriate ATS units and authorities as specified in local instructions.
3.2.4  Changes of radio frequency and SSR code should be avoided if possible and should normally be made only when or if an improved service can be provided to the aircraft concerned. Manoeuvring instructions to an aircraft experiencing engine failure should be limited to a minimum. When appropriate, other aircraft operating in the vicinity of the aircraft in emergency should be advised of the circumstances.

Note: Requests to the flight crew for the information contained in 3.2.3 e) will be made only if the information is not available from the operator or from other sources and will be limited to essential information.

3.3   Failure of equipment
3.3.1   Aircraft radio transmitter failure
3.3.1.1  If two-way communication is lost with an aircraft, the controller should determine whether or not the aircraft’s receiver is functioning by instructing the aircraft on the channel so far used to acknowledge by making a specified manoeuvre and by observing the aircraft’s track, or by instructing the aircraft to operate IDENT or to make SSR code transmission changes.

Note: Transponder-equipped aircraft experiencing radiocommunication failure will operate the transponder on Mode A Code 7600.

3.3.1.2  If the action prescribed in 3.3.1.1 is unsuccessful, it shall be repeated on any other available channel on which it is believed that the aircraft might be listening.
3.3.1.3  In both the cases covered by 3.3.1.1 and 3.3.1.2, any manoeuvring instructions shall be such that the aircraft would regain its current cleared track after having complied with the instructions received.
3.3.1.4  Where it has been established by the action in 3.3.1.1 that the aircraft’s radio receiver is functioning, continued control can be effected using SSR code transmission changes or IDENT transmissions to obtain acknowledgement of clearances issued to the aircraft.
3.3.2   Complete aircraft communication failure
3.3.2.1  When a controlled aircraft experiencing complete communication failure is operating or expected to operate in an area and at flight levels where an ATS surveillance service is applied, separation minima may continue to be used.
3.3.2.2  However, if the aircraft experiencing the communication failure is not identified, separation shall be applied between identified aircraft and all unidentified aircraft observed along the expected route of the aircraft with the communication failure, until such time as it is known, or can safely be assumed, that the aircraft with radiocommunication failure has passed through the airspace concerned, has landed, or has proceeded elsewhere.
3.3.3   Aircraft transponder failure in areas where the carriage of a functioning transponder is mandatory
3.3.3.1  When an aircraft experiencing transponder failure after departure is operating or expected to operate in an area where the carriage of a functioning transponder with specified capabilities is mandatory, the ATC units concerned should endeavour to provide for continuation of the flight to the aerodrome of first intended landing in accordance with the flight plan. However, in certain traffic situations, either in terminal areas or en-route, continuation of the flight may not be possible, particularly when failure is detected shortly after take-off. The aircraft may then be required to return to the departure aerodrome or to land at the nearest suitable aerodrome acceptable to the operator concerned and to ATC.
3.3.3.2  In the case of a transponder which has failed and cannot be restored before departure, pilots shall:
  1. inform ATS as soon as possible, preferably before submission of a flight plan;
  2. insert in item 10 of the ICAO flight plan form under SSR the character ‘N’ for complete unserviceability of the transponder or, in case of partial transponder failure, insert the character corresponding to the remaining transponder capability; and
  3. comply with any published procedures for requesting an exemption from the requirements to carry a functioning SSR transponder.
3.3.3.3  In case of a transponder failure after departure, ATC units shall attempt to provide for continuation of the flight to the destination aerodrome in accordance with the flight plan. Pilots may, however, be expected to comply with specific restrictions.
3.3.3.4  In case of a transponder failure which is detected before departure from an aerodrome where it is not practicable to effect a repair, the aircraft concerned should be permitted to proceed, as directly as possible, to the nearest suitable aerodrome where repair can be made. When granting clearance to such aircraft, ATC should take into consideration the existing or anticipated traffic situation and may have to modify the time of departure, flight level or route of the intended flight. Subsequent adjustments may become necessary during the course of the flight.
3.4   ATS surveillance system failure
3.4.1  In the event of complete failure of the ATS surveillance system where air-ground communications remain, the controller shall plot the positions of all aircraft already identified, take the necessary action to establish procedural separation between the aircraft and, if necessary, limit the number of aircraft permitted to enter the area.
3.4.2  As an emergency measure, use of flight levels spaced by half the applicable vertical separation minimum may be resorted to temporarily if standard procedural separation cannot be provided immediately.
3.5   Ground radio failure
3.5.1  In the event of complete failure of the ground radio equipment used for control, the controller shall, unless able to continue to provide the ATS surveillance service by means of other available communication channels, proceed as follows:
  1. without delay inform all adjacent control positions or ATC units, as applicable, of the failure;
  2. apprise such positions or units of the current traffic situation;
  3. request their assistance, in respect of aircraft which may establish communications with those positions or units, in establishing and maintaining separation between such aircraft; and
  4. instruct adjacent control positions or ATC units to hold or re-route all controlled flights outside the area of responsibility of the position or ATC unit that has experienced the failure until such time that the provision of normal services can be resumed.
3.5.2  In order to reduce the impact of complete ground radio equipment failure on the safety of air traffic, the appropriate ATS authority should establish contingency procedures to be followed by control positions and ATC units in the event of such failures. Where feasible and practicable, such contingency procedures should provide for the delegation of control to an adjacent control position or ATC unit in order to permit a minimum level of services to be provided as soon as possible, following the ground radio failure and until normal operations can be resumed.
3.6   Unlawful interferences with aircraft in flight
3.6.1  If there is unlawful interference with an aircraft in flight, the pilot-in-command shall attempt to set the transponder to Mode A Code 7500 in order to indicate the situation. If circumstances so warrant, Code 7700 should be used instead.
3.6.2  If a pilot has selected Mode A Code 7500 and has been requested to confirm this code by ATC (in accordance with 2.3.10), the pilot shall, according to circumstances, either confirm this or not reply at all.

Note: If the pilot does not reply, ATC will take this as confirmation that the use of Code 7500 is not an inadvertent false code selection.

3.7   Strayed or unidentified aircraft
3.7.1  As soon as an air traffic services unit becomes aware of a strayed aircraft it shall take all necessary steps as outlined in 3.7.2 and 3.7.4 to assist the aircraft and to safeguard its flight.
3.7.2  If the aircraft’s position is not known, the air traffic services unit shall:
  1. attempt to establish two-way communication with the aircraft, unless such communication already exists;
  2. use all available means to determine its position;
  3. inform other air traffic services units into whose area the aircraft may have strayed or may stray, taking into account all the factors which may have affected the navigation of the aircraft in the circumstances;
  4. inform, in accordance with locally agreed procedures, appropriate military units and provide them with pertinent flight plan and other data concerning strayed aircraft;
  5. request from the units referred to in c) and d) and from other aircraft in flight every assistance in establishing communication with the aircraft and determining its position.
3.7.3  The requirements in 3.7.2 d) and e) shall apply also to air traffic services units informed in accordance with 3.7.2 c).
3.7.4  When the aircraft’s position is established, the air traffic services unit shall:
  1. advise the aircraft of its position and the corrective action to be taken. This advice shall be immediately provided when the ATS unit is aware that there is a possibility of interception or other hazard to the safety of the aircraft; and
  2. provide, as necessary, other air traffic services units and appropriate military units with relevant information concerning the strayed aircraft and any advice given to that aircraft.
3.7.5  As soon as an air traffic services unit becomes aware of an unidentified aircraft in its area, it shall endeavour to establish the identity of the aircraft whenever this is necessary for the provision of air traffic services or required by the appropriate military authorities in accordance with locally agreed procedures. To this end, the air traffic services unit shall take such of the following steps as are appropriate in the circumstances:
  1. attempt to establish two-way communication with the aircraft;
  2. inquire of other air traffic services units within the flight information region about the flight and request their assistance in establishing two-way communication with the aircraft;
  3. inquire of air traffic services units serving the adjacent flight information regions about the flight and request their assistance in establishing two-way communication with the aircraft;
  4. attempt to obtain information from other aircraft in the area;
  5. the air traffic services unit shall, as necessary, inform the appropriate military unit as soon as the identity of the aircraft has been established.
3.7.6  In the case of a strayed or unidentified aircraft, the possibility of the aircraft being subject of unlawful interference shall be taken into account.
3.8   Strayed VFR flights and VFR flights encountering adverse meteorological conditions

Note: A strayed aircraft is an aircraft which has deviated significantly from its intended track or which reports that it is lost.

3.8.1  A VFR flight reporting that it is uncertain of its position or lost, or encountering adverse meteorological conditions, should be considered to be in a state of emergency and handled as such. The controller shall, under such circumstances, communicate in a clear, concise and calm manner and care shall be taken, at this stage, not to question any fault or negligence that the pilot may have committed in the preparation or conduct of the flight. Depending on the circumstances, the pilot should be requested to provide any of the following information considered pertinent so as to better provide assistance:
  1. aircraft flight conditions;
  2. position (if known) and level;
  3. airspeed and heading since last known position, if pertinent;
  4. pilot experience;
  5. navigation equipment carried and if any navigation aid signals are being received;
  6. SSR mode and code selected if relevant;
  7. departure and destination aerodromes;
  8. number of persons on board;
  9. endurance.
3.8.2  If communications with the aircraft are weak or distorted, it should be suggested that the aircraft climb to a higher level, provided meteorological conditions and other circumstances permit.
3.8.3  Navigation assistance to help the pilot determine the aircraft position may be provided by use of an ATS surveillance system, direction-finder, navigation aids or sighting by another aircraft. Care must be taken when providing navigation assistance to ensure that the aircraft does not enter cloud.

Note: The possibility of a VFR flight becoming strayed as a result of encountering adverse meteorological conditions must be recognized.

3.8.4  The pilot should be provided with reports and information on suitable aerodromes in the vicinity where visual meteorological conditions exist.
3.8.5  If reporting difficulty in maintaining or unable to maintain VMC, the pilot should be informed of the minimum flight altitude of the area where the aircraft is, or is believed to be. If the aircraft is below that level, and the position of the aircraft has been established with a sufficient degree of probability, a track or heading, or a climb, may be suggested to bring the aircraft to a safe level.
3.8.6  Assistance to a VFR flight should only be provided using an ATS surveillance system upon the request or concurrence of the pilot. The type of service to be provided should be agreed with the pilot.
3.8.7  When providing such assistance in adverse meteorological conditions, the primary objective should be to bring the aircraft into VMC as soon as possible. Caution must be exercised to prevent the aircraft from entering cloud.
3.8.8  Should circumstances be such that IMC cannot be avoided by the pilot, the following guidelines may be followed:
  1. other traffic on the ATC frequency not able to provide any assistance may be instructed to change to another frequency to ensure uninterrupted communications with the aircraft; alternatively the aircraft being assisted may be instructed to change to another frequency;
  2. ensure, if possible, that any turns by the aircraft are carried out clear of cloud;
  3. instructions involving abrupt manoeuvres should be avoided; and
  4. instructions or suggestions to reduce speed of the aircraft or to lower the landing gear, should, if possible, be carried out clear of cloud.
3.9   Collision hazard information
3.9.1  When an identified controlled flight is observed to be on a conflicting path with an unknown aircraft deemed to constitute a collision hazard, the pilot of the controlled flight shall, whenever practicable:
  1. be informed of the unknown aircraft, and if so requested by the controlled flight or if, in the opinion of the controller, the situation warrants, a course of avoiding action should be suggested; and
  2. be notified when the conflict no longer exists.
3.9.2  Information regarding traffic on a conflicting path should be given, whenever practicable, in the following form:
  1. relative bearing of the conflicting traffic in terms of the 12-hour clock;
  2. distance from the conflicting traffic in nautical miles;
  3. direction in which the conflicting traffic appears to be proceeding;
  4. level and type of aircraft or, if unknown, relative speed of the conflicting traffic, e.g. slow or fast.
3.9.3  In cases where using the terms of the 12-hour clock is not practicable, like when the aircraft is turning, the direction of the unknown aircraft may be given by compass points, e.g. northwest, south, etc.
3.9.4  The level may be described either as a flight level, altitude or height, or as a relative vertical distance from the aircraft provided with traffic information (e.g. 1 000 FT above or 1 000 FT below).
3.9.5  Pressure-altitude-derived level information, even when unverified, should be used in the provision of collision hazard information because such information, particularly if available from an otherwise unknown aircraft (e.g. a VFR flight) and given to the pilot of a known aircraft, could facilitate the location of a collision hazard.
3.9.6  When the pressure-altitude-derived level information has been verified, the information shall be passed to pilots in a clear and unambiguous manner. If the level information has not been verified, the accuracy of the information should be considered uncertain and the pilot shall be informed accordingly.
3.9.7  When an identified IFR flight operating outside controlled airspace is observed to be on a conflicting path with another aircraft, the pilot should:
  1. be informed as to the need for collision avoidance action to be initiated, and if so requested by the pilot or if, in the opinion of the controller, the situation warrants, a course of avoiding action should be suggested; and
  2. be notified when the conflict no longer exists.
3.9.8  The information presented on a situation display may be used to provide identified aircraft with information regarding any aircraft observed to be on a conflicting path with the identified aircraft, and suggestions or advice regarding avoiding action.
3.9.9  The provision of collision hazard information does not absolve pilots of VFR flights from their responsibilities for avoiding terrain/obstacles and for maintaining visual meteorological conditions.

4.   Graphic portrayal of area of SSR coverage

4.1   MSSR coverage at FL 300
4.1.1  At FL 300 the MSSR coverage is triplicated everywhere as shown on Figure 1 below.

Figure 1 - MSSR coverage at FL 300

4.2   MSSR coverage at FL 200
4.2.1  At FL 200 duplicated surveillance coverage is assured with almost a third layer available everywhere as shown on Figure 2 below.

Figure 2 - MSSR coverage at FL 200

4.3   MSSR coverage at FL 100
4.3.1  At FL 100 the MSSR coverage is not available everywhere, as shown on Figure 3 below. There are gaps in achieved surveillance coverage in the eastern part of the Tirana FIR due to terrain obstruction.

Figure 3 - MSSR coverage at FL 100