ENR 1.8  Regional supplementary procedures (doc 7030)

1.   General

1.1   Reference documents
1.1.1  Regional Supplementary Procedures are applied in accordance with ICAO Doc 7030/5 - Regional Supplementary Procedures, Part EUR.

2.   RVSM procedures

2.1   General
2.1.1  The airspace within the Tirana FIR between FL 290 and FL 410 inclusive, as described in ENR 2.1, is EUR RVSM airspace.
2.1.2  Only RVSM-approved aircraft and non-RVSM-approved State aircraft shall be issued an ATC clearance into RVSM airspace.
2.1.3  ATC clearance into RVSM airspace shall not be issued to formation flights of civil aircraft.
2.2   RVSM operations
2.2.1  If the receiving unit has not received a flight plan, the sending ATC unit shall verbally inform the receiving unit whether or not the aircraft is RVSM-approved.
2.2.2  When an automated message does not contain the information filed in Item 18 of the flight plan relevant to RVSM operations, the sending ATC unit shall inform the receiving unit of that information by supplementing the ACT message verbally, using the term “NEGATIVE RVSM” or “NEGATIVE RVSM STATE AIRCRAFT”, as applicable.
2.2.3  When a verbal coordination process is being used, the sending ATC unit shall include the information filed in Item 18 of the flight plan relevant to RVSM operations at the end of the verbal estimate message, using the term “NEGATIVE RVSM” or “NEGATIVE RVSM STATE AIRCRAFT”, as applicable.
2.2.4  When a single aircraft is experiencing an in-flight contingency that impacts on RVSM operations, the associated coordination message(s) shall be supplemented verbally by a description of the cause of the contingency.
2.3   Vertical separation
2.3.1  Within the RVSM airspace, the vertical separation minimum shall be:
  1. 300 M (1000 FT) between RVSM-approved aircraft;
  2. 600 M (2000 FT) between:
    • non-RVSM-approved State aircraft and any other aircraft operating within RVSM airspace;
    • all formation flights of State aircraft and any other aircraft operating within RVSM airspace.

3.   RNAV procedures

3.1   RNAV system operation
3.1.1  RNAV 5 systems permit aircraft navigation along any desired flight path within the coverage of ground or space-based navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids or a combination of both methods.
3.1.2  Correct operation of the aircraft RNAV system shall be established before joining and during operation on an RNAV route. This shall include confirmation that:
  1. the routing is in accordance with the clearance; and
  2. the RNAV navigation accuracy of the aircraft meets the navigation accuracy requirements of the RNAV route, as applicable.
3.2   RNAV 5 route operations
3.2.1  All RNAV 5 route operations of aircraft, other than State aircraft, conducted under IFR within the airspace of Tirana FIR above FL115 shall be based on the use of RNAV equipment which automatically determines the aircraft position in the horizontal plane using input from one sensor or a combination of the following types of position sensors, together with the means to establish and follow a desired path:
  1. VOR/DME; and
  2. GNSS.
3.3   Terminal area
3.3.1  For operation on RNAV 1 segments of arrival and departure routes, where clearance is given by ATC for an RNAV procedure for which the aircraft is not approved, the pilot is to advise ATC who will then seek to provide an alternative routing.
3.4   State aircraft
3.4.1  For State aircraft not equipped with RNAV but having a navigation accuracy meeting RNP 5 operating en-route, the following procedures apply:
  1. State aircraft should be routed via VOR/DME-defined ATS routes; or
  2. if no such routes are available, State aircraft should be routed via conventional navigation aids, i.e. VOR/DME.

Note: State aircraft routed in accordance with a) or b) may require continuous radar monitoring by the ATC unit concerned.

3.4.2  When the above procedures cannot be applied, the ATC unit shall provide State aircraft with radar vectors until the aircraft is capable of resuming its own navigation.
3.4.3  Within the Tirana TMA, State aircraft not equipped with the appropriate RNAV equipment should be routed via conventional arrival and departure routes.
3.5   Obstacle clearance
3.5.1  Unless an IFR aircraft is receiving navigation guidance from ATC in the form of radar vectors, the pilot is responsible for obstacle clearance. Therefore, the use of RNAV does not relieve pilots of their responsibility to ensure that any ATC clearance or instruction is safe in respect to obstacle clearance. ATC shall assign levels that are at or above established minimum flight altitudes.

4.   Communication Procedures

4.1   Abbreviated position reports
4.1.1  Abbreviated position reports should only contain the aircraft identification, position, time and flight level or altitude, unless otherwise specified.
4.1.2  In controlled airspace, designated by the appropriate ATS authority, where:
  1. through secondary surveillance radar (SSR), individual identity and verified Mode C information are permanently available in the form of labels associated with the radar position of the aircraft concerned; and
  2. reliable air-ground communications coverage and direct pilot-to-controller communications exist,

the initial call after changing a radio channel may contain only the aircraft identification and level; subsequently, position reports may contain only aircraft identification, position and time.

4.2   Read-back of VHF channels
4.2.1  When instructed to contact an ATS unit on a different VHF communication channel, the pilot shall read back the newly assigned channel.

5.   Procedures for VFR flights above FL 195

5.1   General
5.1.1  All airspace within the Tirana FIR above FL 195 is classified as Class C airspace.
5.1.2  VFR flights above FL 195 may only be allowed in airspace reservation, where practical.
5.1.3  In airspace above flight level 195, up to and including flight level 285, VFR flights may also be authorised by the appropriate ATS authority in accordance with the authorization procedures described below.
5.2   Procedures
5.2.1  An airspace reservation will be established by the AMC in close cooperation with the user of airspace reservation and the appropriate ATS authority after the user’s application.
5.2.2  Provision for activation of an airspace reservation, and instructions for operation within that area, will be issued with the reply to such an application.
5.2.3  Authorization to conduct VFR operations above FL 195 within the airspace reservation will be included in the decision to establish the airspace reservation.
5.2.4  In exceptional circumstances, it may be possible to permit access for VFR flights above FL 195, up to and including FL 285, not requiring airspace reservation. Such access will be accommodated within the context of safety, capacity and effect on the ATS network as a whole.
5.2.5  Application for permission to operate VFR flight above FL 195, up to and including FL 285, outside of an airspace reservation shall be coordinated with the appropriate ATS authority and after that presented to the AMC at least 10 working days before the proposed operation.

6.   Procedures for ATS units when a volcanic ash cloud is reported or forecast

6.1   Transmission of information concerning volcanic activity
6.1.1  Information concerning pre-eruption volcanic activity, volcanic eruptions and volcanic ash clouds (position of clouds and flight levels affected) shall be disseminated to aircraft by one or more of the following means as determined by the appropriate ATS authority:
  1. the preferred method of directed transmission on the initiative of the appropriate ATS unit to an aircraft, ensuring that receipt is acknowledged; or
  2. a general call, unacknowledged transmission to all aircraft concerned; or
  3. broadcast.

Note: It should be recognized that in certain circumstances, e.g. during the last stages of a final approach, it may be impracticable for aircraft to acknowledge directed transmissions.

6.1.2  The use of general calls shall be limited to cases where it is necessary to disseminate essential information to several aircraft without delay, e.g. the sudden occurrence of hazards, a change of the runway-in-use, or the failure of a key approach and landing aid.
6.2   Procedures
6.2.1  If a volcanic ash cloud is reported or forecast in the airspace for which the ATS unit is responsible, the following actions should be taken:
  1. relay pertinent information immediately to flight crews whose aircraft could be affected to ensure that they are aware of the ash cloud’s current and forecast position and the flight levels affected;
  2. accommodate requests for re-routing or level changes to the extent practicable;
  3. suggest re-routing to avoid or exit areas of reported or forecast ash clouds when requested by the pilot or deemed necessary by the controller; and
  4. when practicable, request a special air-report when the route of flight takes the aircraft into or near the forecast ash cloud and provide such special air-reports to the appropriate agencies.

Note 1: Experience has shown that the recommended escape manoeuvre for an aircraft which has encounte-red an ash cloud is to reverse its course and begin a descent if terrain permits. The final responsibility for this decision, however, rests with the pilot-in-command as specified in the Manual on Volcanic Ash, Radioactive Material and Toxic Chemical Clouds (Doc 9691), 5.2.4.1.

Note 2: The final authority as to the disposition of the aircraft, whether to avoid or proceed through a reported or forecast ash cloud, rests with the pilot-in-command, as prescribed in Annex 2, 2.4.

6.2.2  When the flight crew advises the ATS unit that the aircraft has inadvertently entered a volcanic ash cloud, the ATS unit should:
  1. take such action applicable to an aircraft in an emergency situation; and
  2. initiate modifications of route or level assigned only when requested by the pilot or necessitated by airspace requirements or traffic conditions.

Note: Guidance material concerning the effect of volcanic ash and the impact of volcanic ash on aviation operational and support services is provided in Chapters 4 and 5 of Doc 9691.

7.   Special procedures

7.1   Emergency descent procedures
7.1.1  When an aircraft operated as a controlled flight experiences sudden decompression or a malfunction requiring an emergency descent, the aircraft shall, if able:
  1. initiate a turn away from the assigned route or track before commencing the emergency descent;
  2. advise the appropriate ATC unit as soon as possible of the emergency descent;
  3. set transponder to Code 7700 and select the emergency mode on the automatic dependent surveillance;
  4. turn on aircraft exterior lights;
  5. watch for conflicting traffic both visually and by reference to airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS) (if equipped); and
  6. coordinate its further intentions with the appropriate ATC unit.
7.1.2  The aircraft is not to descend below the lowest published minimum altitude that will provide a minimum vertical clearance of 300 M (1000 FT) or, in designated mountainous terrain, of 600 M (2000 FT) above all obstacles located in the area specified.
7.1.3  Immediately upon recognizing that an emergency descent is in progress, ATC units are to acknowledge the emergency on radiotelephony.
7.1.4  In particular, when recognising that an emergency descent is in progress, ATC may, as required by the situation:
  1. suggest a heading to be flown, if able, by the aircraft carrying out the emergency descent in order to achieve separation from other aircraft concerned;
  2. state the minimum altitude for the area of operation, only if the level-off altitude stated by the pilot is below such minimum altitude, together with the applicable QNH altimeter setting; and
  3. as soon as possible, provide separation from conflicting traffic, or issue essential traffic information, as appropriate.
7.1.5  When deemed necessary, ATC will broadcast an emergency message, or cause such message to be broadcast, to other aircraft concerned to warn them of the emergency descent.
7.2   Minimum fuel and fuel emergency
7.2.1  When a pilot reports a state of minimum fuel, the controller shall inform the pilot as soon as practicable of any anticipated delays or that no delays are expected.
7.2.2  When the level of fuel renders declaring a situation of distress necessary, the pilot, in accordance with the distress and urgency radiotelephony communication procedures, shall indicate that by using the radiotelephony distress signal (MAYDAY), preferably spoken three times, followed by the nature of the distress condition (FUEL).
7.2.3  The declaration of MINIMUM FUEL informs ATC that all planned aerodrome options have been reduced to a specific aerodrome of intended landing, and any change to the existing clearance may result in landing with less than planned final reserve fuel. This is not an emergency situation but an indication that an emergency situation is possible should any additional delay occur.
7.3   Degraded aircraft performance
7.3.1   General
7.3.1.1  Whenever, as a result of failure or degradation of navigation, communications, altimetry, flight control or other systems, aircraft performance is degraded below the level required for the airspace in which it is operating, the flight crew shall advise the ATC unit concerned without delay. Where the failure or degradation affects the separation minimum currently being employed, the controller shall take action to establish another appropriate type of separation or separation minimum.
7.3.2   Degradation or failure of the RNAV system
7.3.2.1  When an aircraft cannot meet the requirements as required by the RNAV route or procedure, as a result of a failure or degradation of the RNAV system, a revised clearance shall be requested by the pilot.
7.3.2.2  If an aircraft cannot meet the requirements due to a failure or degradation of the RNAV system that is detected before departure from an aerodrome where it is not practicable to effect a repair, the aircraft concerned should be permitted to proceed to the nearest suitable aerodrome where the repair can be made. When granting clearance to such aircraft, ATC should take into consideration the existing or anticipated traffic situation and may have to modify the time of departure, flight level or route of the intended flight. Subsequent adjustments may become necessary during the course of the flight.
7.3.2.3  With respect to the degradation/failure in flight of an RNAV system, while the aircraft is operating on an ATS route requiring the use of RNAV 5:
  1. aircraft should be routed via VOR/DME-defined ATS routes; or
  2. if no such routes are available, aircraft should be routed via conventional navigation aids, i.e. VOR/DME
7.3.2.4  When the above procedures are not feasible, the ATC unit should, where practicable, provide the aircraft with radar vectors until the aircraft is capable of resuming its own navigation.
7.3.2.5  With respect to the degradation/failure in flight of an RNAV system, while the aircraft is operating on an arrival or departure procedure requiring the use of RNAV:
  1. the aircraft should be provided with radar vectors until the aircraft is capable of resuming its own navigation; or
  2. the aircraft should be routed by conventional navigation aids, i.e. VOR/DME.
7.3.2.6  Subsequent ATC action in respect of an aircraft that cannot meet the specified requirements due to a failure or degradation of the RNAV system, will be dependent upon the nature of the reported failure and the overall traffic situation. Continued operation in accordance with the current ATC clearance may be possible in many situations. When this cannot be achieved, a revised clearance may be required to revert to VOR/DME navigation.
7.3.3   Loss of vertical navigation performance required for RVSM airspace
7.3.3.1  The pilot shall inform ATC as soon as possible of any circumstances where the vertical navigation performance requirements for RVSM airspace cannot be maintained. In such cases, the pilot shall obtain a revised ATC clearance prior to initiating any deviation from the cleared route and/or flight level, whenever possible. When a revised ATC clearance cannot be obtained prior to such a deviation, the pilot shall obtain a revised clearance as soon as possible thereafter.
7.3.3.2  An in-flight contingency affecting flight in RVSM airspace pertains to unforeseen circumstances that directly impact on the ability of one or more aircraft to operate in accordance with the vertical navigation performance requirements of RVSM airspace.
7.3.3.3  During operations in, or vertical transit through, RVSM airspace with aircraft not approved for RVSM operations, pilots shall report non-approved status as follows:
  1. at initial call on any channel within RVSM airspace;
  2. in all requests for level changes; and
  3. in all read-backs of level clearances.
7.3.3.4  Air traffic controllers shall explicitly acknowledge receipt of messages from aircraft reporting RVSM non-approved status.
7.3.3.5  Degradation of aircraft equipment – pilot reported
7.3.3.5.1  When informed by the pilot of an RVSM-approved aircraft operating in RVSM airspace that the aircraft's equipment no longer meets the RVSM requirements, ATC shall consider the aircraft as non-RVSM-approved.
7.3.3.5.2  ATC shall take action immediately to provide a minimum vertical separation of 600 M (2000 FT) or an appropriate horizontal separation from all other aircraft concerned that are operating in RVSM airspace. An aircraft rendered non-RVSM-approved shall normally be cleared out of RVSM airspace by ATC when it is possible to do so.
7.3.3.5.3  Pilots shall inform ATC, as soon as practicable, of any restoration of the proper functioning of equipment required to meet the RVSM requirements.
7.3.3.5.4  The first ACC to become aware of a change in an aircraft’s RVSM status shall coordinate with adjacent ACCs, as appropriate.
7.3.3.6   Severe turbulence – not forecast
7.3.3.6.1  When an aircraft operating in RVSM airspace encounters severe turbulence due to weather or wake vortex that the pilot believes will impact the aircraft’s capability to maintain its cleared flight level, the pilot shall inform ATC. ATC shall establish either an appropriate horizontal separation or an increased minimum vertical separation.
7.3.3.6.2  ATC shall, to the extent possible, accommodate pilot requests for flight level and/or route changes and shall pass on traffic information as required.
7.3.3.6.3  ATC shall solicit reports from other aircraft to determine whether RVSM should be suspended entirely or within a specific flight level band and/or area.
7.3.3.6.4  The ACC suspending RVSM shall coordinate with adjacent ACCs such suspension(s) and any required adjustments to sector capacities, as appropriate, to ensure an orderly progression of the transfer of traffic.
7.3.3.7   Severe turbulence – forecast
7.3.3.7.1  When a meteorological forecast is predicting severe turbulence within RVSM airspace, ATC shall determine whether RVSM should be suspended and, if so, for how long and for which specific flight level(s) and/or area.
7.3.3.7.2  In cases where RVSM will be suspended, the ACC suspending RVSM shall coordinate with adjacent ACCs with regard to the flight levels appropriate for the transfer of traffic, unless a contingency flight level allocation scheme has been determined by letter of agreement. The ACC suspending RVSM shall also coordinate applicable sector capacities with adjacent ACCs, as appropriate.
7.4   ACAS resolution advisory (RA)
7.4.1  ACAS II shall be used during flight, except as provided in the minimum equipment list specified in Commission Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 in a mode that enables RA indications to be produced for the flight crew when undue proximity to another aircraft is detected. This shall not apply if inhibition of RA indication mode (using traffic advisory (TA) indication only or equivalent) is called for by an abnormal procedure or due to performance-limiting conditions.
7.4.2  In the event of an ACAS RA, pilots shall:
  1. respond immediately by following the RA, as indicated, unless doing so would jeopardise the safety of the aircraft;
  2. follow the RA even if there is a conflict between the RA and an ATC instruction to manoeuvre;
  3. not manoeuvre in the opposite sense to an RA;
  4. as soon as possible, as permitted by flight crew workload, notify the appropriate ATC unit of any RA which requires a deviation from the current ATC instruction or clearance;
  5. promptly comply with any modified RAs;
  6. limit the alterations of the flight path to the minimum extent necessary to comply with the RAs;
  7. promptly return to the terms of the ATC instruction or clearance when the conflict is resolved; and
  8. notify ATC when returning to the current clearance.
7.4.3  When a pilot reports an ACAS RA, the controller shall not attempt to modify the aircraft flight path until the pilot reports ‘CLEAR OF CONFLICT’.
7.4.4  Once an aircraft departs from its ATC clearance or instruction in compliance with an RA, or a pilot reports an RA, the controller ceases to be responsible for providing separation between that aircraft and any other aircraft affected as a direct consequence of the manoeuvre induced by the RA. The controller shall resume responsibility for providing separation to all the affected aircraft when:
  1. the controller acknowledges a report from the flight crew that the aircraft has resumed the current clearance; or
  2. the controller acknowledges a report from the flight crew that the aircraft is resuming the current clearance and issues an alternative clearance which is acknowledged by the flight crew.
7.4.5  Nothing in the procedures specified in 7.4.1 to 7.4.4 should prevent pilots-in-command from exercising their best judgement and full authority in the choice of the best course of action to resolve a traffic conflict or avert a potential collision.
7.4.6  Pilots should not manoeuvre their aircraft in response to traffic advisories (TAs) only.
7.4.7  Visually acquired traffic may not be the same traffic causing an RA. The visual perception of an encounter may be misleading, particularly at night.
7.4.8  In the case of an ACAS–ACAS coordinated encounter, the RAs complement each other in order to reduce the potential for a collision. Manoeuvres, or lack of manoeuvres, that result in vertical rates opposite to the sense of an RA could result in a collision with the intruder aircraft.
7.4.9  Unless informed by the pilot, ATC does not know when ACAS issues RAs. It is possible for ATC to issue instructions that are unknowingly contrary to ACAS RA indications. Therefore, it is important that ATC be notified when an ATC instruction or clearance is not being followed because it conflicts with an RA.
7.4.10  Pilots should use appropriate procedures by which an aeroplane climbing or descending to an assigned altitude or flight level may do so at a rate less than 8 m/s (or 1 500 ft/min) throughout the last 300 m (or 1 000 ft) of climb or descent to the assigned altitude or flight level when the pilot is made aware of another aircraft at or approaching an adjacent altitude or flight level, unless otherwise instructed by ATC. These procedures are intended to avoid unnecessary ACAS II RAs in aircraft at or approaching adjacent altitudes or flight levels. For commercial operations, these procedures should be specified by the operator.